Raccoon & Raccoon Pics And Raccoon Wallpapers

 Social behavior Of Raccoon
Studies in the 1990s by the ethologists Stanley D. Gehrt and Ulf Hohmann indicated raccoons engage in gender-specific social behaviors and are not typically solitary, as was previously thought.[68][69] Related females often live in a so-called "fission-fusion society", that is, they share a common area and occasionally meet at feeding or resting grounds.[70] Unrelated males often form loose male social groups to maintain their position against foreign males during the mating season—or against other potential invaders.[71] Such a group does not usually consist of more than four individuals.[72] Since some males show aggressive behavior towards unrelated kits, mothers will isolate themselves from other raccoons until their kits are big enough to defend themselves.[73] With respect to these three different modes of life prevalent among raccoons, Hohmann called their social structure a "three class society".[74] Samuel I. Zeveloff, professor of zoology at Weber State University and author of the book Raccoons: A Natural History, is more cautious in his interpretation and concludes at least the females are solitary most of the time and, according to Erik K. Fritzell's study in North Dakota in 1978, males in areas with low population densities are solitary, as well.[75]
The shape and size of a raccoon's home range varies depending on age, gender, and habitat, with adults claiming areas more than twice as large as juveniles.[76] While the size of home ranges in the inhospitable habitat of North Dakota's prairies lay between 7 and 50 km2 (3 and 20 sq mi) for males and between 2 and 16 km2 (1 and 6 sq mi) for females, the average size in a marsh at Lake Erie was 0.49 km2 (0.19 sq mi).[77] Irrespective of whether the home ranges of adjacent groups overlap, they are most likely not actively defended outside the mating season if food supplies are sufficient.[78] Odor marks on prominent spots are assumed to establish home ranges and identify individuals.[79] Urine and feces left at shared latrines may provide additional information about feeding grounds, since raccoons were observed to meet there later for collective eating, sleeping and playing.[80]
Concerning the general behavior patterns of raccoons, Gehrt points out, "typically you'll find 10 to 15 percent that will do the opposite"[81] of what is expected.


Raccoon & Raccoon Pics And Raccoon Wallpapers

About Of  Raccoon
Head to hindquarters, raccoons measure between 40 and 70 cm (16 and 28 in), not including the bushy tail which can measure between 20 and 40 cm (8 and 16 in), but is usually not much longer than 25 cm (10 in).[29] The shoulder height is between 23 and 30 cm (9 and 12 in).[30] The skull of the adult male measures 94.3–125.8 mm long and 60.2–89.1 mm wide, while that of the female measures 89.4–115.9 mm long and 58.3–81.2 mm wide.[31] The body weight of an adult raccoon varies considerably with habitat; it can range from 2 to 14 kilograms (4 to 30 lb), but is usually between 3.5 and 9 kilograms (8 and 20 lb). The smallest specimens are found in Southern Florida, while those near the northern limits of the raccoon's range tend to be the largest (see Bergmann's rule).[32] Males are usually 15 to 20% heavier than females.[33] At the beginning of winter, a raccoon can weigh twice as much as in spring because of fat storage.[34] It is one of the most variably sized of all mammals. The largest recorded wild raccoon weighed 28.4 kg (62.6 lb) and measured 140 cm (55 in) in total length, by far the largest size recorded for a procyonid.[35][36]
The most characteristic physical feature of the raccoon is the area of black fur around the eyes, which contrasts sharply with the surrounding white face coloring. This is reminiscent of a "bandit's mask" and has thus enhanced the animal's reputation for mischief.[37] The slightly rounded ears are also bordered by white fur. Raccoons are assumed to recognize the facial expression and posture of other members of their species more quickly because of the conspicuous facial coloration and the alternating light and dark rings on the tail. The rings resemble those of a ringtail lemur.[38][39] The dark mask may also reduce glare and thus enhance night vision.[39] On other parts of the body, the long and stiff guard hairs, which shed moisture, are usually colored in shades of gray and, to a lesser extent, brown.[40] Raccoons with a very dark coat are more common in the German population because individuals with such coloring were among those initially released to the wild.[41] The dense underfur, which accounts for almost 90% of the coat, insulates against cold weather and is composed of 2 to 3 cm (0.8 to 1.2 in) long hairs.[40]
The raccoon, whose method of locomotion is usually considered to be plantigrade, can stand on its hind legs to examine objects with its front paws.[42] As raccoons have short legs compared to their compact torso, they are usually not able either to run quickly or jump great distances.[43] Their top speed over short distances is 16 to 24 km/h (10 to 15 mph).[44][45] Raccoons can swim with an average speed of about 5 km/h (3 mph) and can stay in the water for several hours.[46] For climbing down a tree headfirst—an unusual ability for a mammal of its size—a raccoon rotates its hind feet so they are pointing backwards.[47] Raccoons have a dual cooling system to regulate their temperature; that is, they are able to both sweat and pant for heat dissipation.[48]
Raccoon skulls have a short and wide facial region and a voluminous braincase. The facial length of the skull is less than the cranial, and their nasal bones are short and quite broad. The auditory bullae are inflated in form, and the sagittal crest is weakly developed.[49] The dentition — 40 teeth with the dental formula: Upper:, lower: — is adapted to their omnivorous diet: the carnassials are not as sharp and pointed as those of a full-time carnivore, but the molars are not as wide as those of a herbivore.[50] The penis bone of males is about 10 cm (4 in) long and strongly bent at the front end and is often used by biologists to classify reproductive status of specimens.[51] Seven of the thirteen identified vocal calls are used in communication between the mother and her kits, one of these being the birdlike twittering of newborns.[52]

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