Mosquito Dengue Fever

Dengue fever (UK: /ˈdɛŋɡeɪ/, US: /ˈdɛŋɡiː/), also known as breakbone fever, is an infectious tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic morbilliform skin rash. The virus has four different types; infection with one type usually gives lifelong immunity to that type, but only short-term immunity to the others. Subsequent infection with a different type is believed to increase the risk of severe complications. The incidence of dengue fever has increased dramatically since the 1960s, with around 50–100 million people infected yearly. Others have more severe illness (5%), and in a small proportion it is life-threatening.[1][3] The incubation period (time between exposure and onset of symptoms) ranges from 3–14 days, but most often it is 4–7 days.[4] Therefore, travelers returning from endemic areas are unlikely to have dengue if fever or other symptoms start more than 14 days after arriving home. The dendritic cell moves to the nearest lymph node. Meanwhile, the virus genome is replicated in membrane-bound vesicles on the cell's endoplasmic reticulum, where the cell's protein synthesis apparatus produces new viral proteins, and the viral RNA is copied. Immature virus particles are transported to the Golgi apparatus, the part of the cell where the some of the proteins receive necessary sugar chains (glycoproteins).

However, early disease can be difficult to differentiate from other viral infections.[5] A probable diagnosis is based on the findings of fever plus two of the following: nausea and vomiting, rash, generalized pains, low white blood cell count, positive tourniquet test, or any warning sign (see table) in someone who lives in an endemic area. Warning signs typically occur before the onset of severe dengue.[8] The tourniquet test, which is particularly useful in settings where no laboratory investigations are readily available, involves the application of a blood pressure cuff for five minutes, followed by the counting of any petechial hemorrhages; a higher number makes a diagnosis of dengue more likely.[8] It may be difficult to distinguish dengue fever and chikungunya, a similar viral infection that shares many symptoms and occurs in similar parts of the world to dengue.


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